What is Blockchain Architecture and How Does It Work?

What is Blockchain Architecture and How Does It Work?

Blockchain architecture is the design and structure of a blockchain network, outlining its components and interactions for secure and distributed ledger...

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Blockchain technology has emerged as a revolutionary tool for storing and exchanging digital information. Its core strength lies in its decentralized nature, which eliminates the need for a central authority and ensures the integrity and immutability of data through cryptography and consensus mechanisms.

But how exactly does this decentralized structure work? That’s where blockchain architecture comes in. In this post, we take a shot at understanding blockchain architecture and the intricacies of this fascinating technology.

What is Blockchain Architecture?

What is Blockchain Architecture
Source | Understanding blockchain architecture

So, what is blockchain architecture? Blockchain architecture creates a decentralized ledger system that uses cryptography to ensure the immutability and integrity of digital information. At its core, it is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, linked together using cryptography to form a chain. 

Each block in a chain, as structured by blockchain architecture, contains a batch of verified transactions added to the blockchain in sequential order, creating a permanent and transparent record of all transactions on the network. The decentralized nature of the blockchain architecture means there is no central authority or single point of failure, making it highly secure and resistant to fraud and hacking.


Now that we are well aware of ‘what is blockchain architecture?’, let’s look at its benefits!

1. Header

A block’s header in a blockchain contains necessary metadata about the block, including its version, timestamp, and the Merkle Root of all the transactions in the block. Nodes use this header to verify the block’s authenticity and contents, ensuring that the data stored on the blockchain is accurate and authentic.

2. Previous Block Address/Hash

Each block in a blockchain includes a reference to the previous block in the chain through the hash function. This creates an unbreakable link between the blocks in the chain, making it impossible to tamper with any block without changing the hash of every subsequent block. This makes the blockchain highly resistant to fraud and tampering, providing a secure and transparent record of all transactions on the network.

3. Timestamp

The timestamp in a block’s header provides an accurate and immutable record of when a transaction occurred, making it easy to verify the order of transactions and prevent double spending fraud.

4. Nonce

The nonce is a randomly generated number used in the mining process, which is the process by which new blocks get added to a proof-of-work blockchain. By finding a nonce that results in a valid hash for a new block, miners can add new blocks to the blockchain and gain rewards in cryptocurrency. Using a nonce ensures that the mining process is fair and transparent and that no single entity can monopolize the process.

5. Merkel Root

The Merkel Root is a hash of all the transactions within a block, which is included in the block’s header. This hash provides a compact and secure way to verify the contents of the block, making it easy to ensure the authenticity and accuracy of all transactions on the network. Additionally, using a Merkel Tree structure allows for efficient verification of many transactions, making the blockchain scalable and capable of handling large volumes of data.


Key Characteristics of Blockchain Architecture
Source | Understanding blockchain architecture and its key characteristics

So what characteristics does a typical blockchain architecture lend the network? Let’s see for ourselves:

1. Decentralization

The most notable characteristic of a blockchain architecture is the decentralized nature of the chain, meaning a single entity or central authority does not control the network. Instead, the network is distributed across a wide number of nodes throughout the world, each with its own copy of the blockchain. This decentralized architecture makes it nearly impossible for any single party to alter or manipulate the data on the blockchain without the consensus of the majority of nodes on the network, making it highly secure and resistant to hacking or fraud.

2. Persistency

Another critical characteristic of blockchain architecture is its persistence. Once a block gets added to the blockchain, it is considered permanent and unalterable. This persistence makes the blockchain ideal for use cases requiring a permanent and auditable data record, such as finance or supply chain management.

3. Anonymity

Blockchain architecture offers users a high degree of anonymity. While each transaction on the blockchain is public and transparent, users can conduct transactions without revealing their identities, using pseudonyms or digital signatures instead. This anonymity makes the blockchain appealing for use cases where privacy is a concern, such as in digital identity verification or healthcare.

4. Auditability

The transparency and persistence of the blockchain make it highly auditable. Any node on the network can view all the transactions on the blockchain, making it easy to verify the authenticity and accuracy of data. Cryptography also ensures that all transactions are secure and tamper-proof, making the blockchain highly trustworthy and reliable for auditing.

5. Transparency

Another critical characteristic of blockchain architecture is its transparency. Each transaction on the blockchain is publicly visible to all nodes on the network, creating a highly transparent and trustworthy record of all activities on the web. This transparency makes the blockchain ideal for use cases requiring trust and clarity, such as supply chain management or voting systems.

6. Cryptography

The use of cryptography is central to blockchain architecture. Cryptography ensures the security and integrity of data on the blockchain, making it tamper-proof and resistant to hacking or fraud. Cryptography is used in various aspects of the blockchain, including the hashing algorithm used to link blocks together, the digital signatures used to authenticate transactions, and the encryption used to secure data on the blockchain.

Types of Blockchain Architecture

Blockchain architecture can be divided into a few types, which would be:

1. Public Blockchain

A public blockchain is a type of blockchain architecture open to anyone wanting to participate. This means anyone can read, write, or participate in the network as a node, and all transactions are publicly visible on the blockchain. 


  • Public blockchains are decentralized and do not rely on a central authority, making them resistant to censorship and manipulation.
  • Public blockchains provide transparency and immutability, allowing anyone to verify the authenticity of transactions.
  • Public blockchains are often more secure due to their distributed nature and the use of consensus algorithms to validate transactions.


  • Public blockchains can be slower and less efficient than private or permissioned blockchains due to the high computational resources required for mining and validation.
  • Public blockchains may be more susceptible to attacks from malicious actors due to their open nature and lack of restrictions on who can participate in the network.
  • Public blockchains can also be less privacy-focused, as all transactions are visible publicly on the blockchain, which may not be desirable in some applications.

2. Private Blockchain

A private blockchain is a kind of blockchain architecture restricted to a specific group of participants. Unlike public blockchains, access to the network and the ability to approve and record transactions are limited to approved participants. Many organizations and companies may make use of private blockchains in activities like supply chain management or record-keeping for internal purposes. 


  • Private blockchains restrict network access and participation, offering greater control over who can participate in the network. 
  • Private blockchains don’t need as much computer power for mining and validation, making them faster.
  • Private blockchains concentrate greatly on privacy since only authorized individuals can join.


  • Private blockchains are less transparent since only authorized users may observe transactions.
  • As fewer people verify transactions on private blockchains, there are chances of a compromise on the decentralization of blockchains.

3. Consortium Blockchain

A consortium blockchain is a kind of blockchain architecture governed by a group of organizations rather than a single entity. In a consortium blockchain, a predefined set of nodes is permitted to write transactions to the blockchain, and all transactions are validated by consensus among the participating nodes. This type of blockchain architecture can provide increased security as compared to private blockchains due to the requirement for consensus among the participating nodes.


  • Consortium blockchains balance the decentralized nature of public blockchains and the controlled access of private blockchains.
  • Consortium blockchains can offer increased security due to the requirement for consensus among the participating nodes.
  • Consortium blockchains can provide a shared infrastructure for multiple organizations to collaborate and share data while maintaining control over their data.


  • Consortium blockchains are less decentralized than public blockchains, leading to concerns about centralization and control.
  • Consortium blockchains are not as transparent as public blockchains since access to the network, and the ability to write transactions are limited to approved participants.
  • Consortium blockchains may require high coordination and governance among participating organizations.

Core Components

The core components of blockchain architecture include:

  1. Distributed ledger: A distributed ledger is a decentralized database that stores a continuously growing list of records called blocks. Each block includes a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data.
  2. Consensus protocol: A consensus protocol is a set of rules determining how transactions are validated and added to the blockchain. Consensus protocols can vary depending on the type of blockchain architecture. Still, they typically involve a process where nodes on the network verify transactions and agree on the current state of the blockchain.
  3. Cryptography: Cryptography is used to secure and authenticate transactions on the blockchain. Public key cryptography is often used to ensure that transactions can only be signed by the owner of the private key associated with the public key.
  4. Smart contracts: Smart contracts are self-executing contracts held on the blockchain. They can automate processes and enforce the terms of an agreement between parties.
  5. Nodes: The blockchain network is the collection of nodes that validate and store transactions on the blockchain. Nodes can be organized in different ways depending on the type of blockchain architecture, such as a public, private, or consortium network.

Blockchain Architecture Vs Database 

ParameterBlockchain ArchitectureDatabase
Data storageData is stored in blocks in a distributed ledger. Each block is linked to the earlier block, creating a chain of blocks to ensure data security.Data is stored in a centralized or distributed database.
SecurityBlockchain uses cryptography to secure data and transactions. Transactions are immutable and cannot be altered once added to the blockchain.Databases can be secured with access controls and encryption but are vulnerable to hacking and data breaches. Data can also be altered or deleted.
DecentralizationBlockchain is a decentralized system, meaning no single entity controls the network.Databases can be centralized, with a single entity typically controlling them.
Consensus mechanismBlockchain uses a consensus mechanism to validate transactions and add them to the blockchain.Databases typically do not have a consensus mechanism.
TrustBlockchain is designed to be trustless, meaning it does not require trust between parties in a transaction. Transactions are validated by the network, not by a trusted third party.Databases often require trust between involved parties; a trusted third party may validate transactions.
TransparencyBlockchain transactions are transparent and visible to all participants on the network.Databases can be transparent or opaque depending on the access controls and permissions the database owner sets.
PerformanceBlockchain can be slower and more resource-intensive than traditional databases due to the need for consensus and cryptography.Databases can be faster and more efficient than blockchain for specific applications.


In this article, we have tried understanding blockchain architecture as the backbone to a revolutionary technology that provides a decentralized and secure way to store and transfer data. Cryptography and a consensus mechanism are used to validate transactions and uphold the distributed ledger’s integrity.

There are different types/kinds of blockchain architecture, including public, private, and consortium blockchains, each with advantages and disadvantages. While blockchain technology is still in its early stages, it has the potential to transform industries and economies by creating new models of trust and collaboration.

Understanding ;what is blockchain architecture?’ and how blockchain architecture works is essential for anyone interested in exploring this groundbreaking technology’s potential applications and implications.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is Blockchain?

Blockchain is a decentralized system that uses cryptography and a consensus mechanism to validate transactions and store data in a distributed ledger. It provides a safe and transparent way to record and transfer digital assets without intermediaries.

2. Where is Blockchain used?

Blockchain technology is used in various industries and applications, including finance, healthcare, supply chain management, voting systems, etc. For example, cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum use blockchain technology to enable secure and decentralized peer-to-peer transactions.

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