Explore the Future of Web3: Shardeum's Whitepaper Released!


What are the primary types of nodes in Shardeum?

Validator Nodes (also known as Validators):

These nodes validate the transactions in the network by participating in the consensus. They will have to stake SHM to be able to participate. Shardeum will reward honest validators with SHM for participating in transaction validation and consensus. Validator nodes don’t store the whole history and in fact they only store the state of accounts they handle,  and hence they will be lightweight.

Archive Nodes:

Archive nodes maintain the entire Transaction history. Archive nodes will also have to stake SHM and they will earn a portion of the network rewards as an incentive to store historical data.

Standby Nodes:

These are validator nodes standing by in the network and not currently participating in consensus. Standby nodes help scale the Shardeum network quicker when more transactions are pending. At the end of every cycle, the oldest active validators in the network are rotated out for standby validators for optimum security. Standby validators require staked SHM to become active and they become eligible for rewards only after completing their active validator period and being cycled out.

What are the other types of nodes on Shardeum?

Other than the above three mentioned nodes, there are other types of nodes needed to move data and transactions in and out of the Shardeum as well as monitor the health of the network. These include connector nodes, relayer nodes and a monitor server. The connector nodes provide an entry point for external wallets and clients to query and submit transactions to the network. These are the same as RPC servers in the Ethereum ecosystem. Relayer nodes communicate with archiver nodes or other relayer nodes to store and stream data produced by the network to downstream services such as the explorer. These are similar to exit nodes in the Ethereum ecosystem which are used by exchanges and explorer services. The monitor server receives status updates from active validator nodes and provides a visual view into the health of the network. You can read more about them in our whitepaper.

What are the requirements to run a node on betanet?

  • 250 GB SSD storage
  • Quad core CPU less than 10 years old if self hosting
  • Dual core CPU works if hosted with newer Xeons / EPYC
  • 16 GB of ram,  4+ GB of virtual memory recommended
  • Hosting: 8 GB RAM + 8 GB Virtual Memory

What is the reward I will get by running an honest node on betanet?

We have announced our Airdrop Phase 1 update that provides high level details into the airdrop rewards for early contributors that include node validators on betanet. The objective of the blog is to supply as many details as possible to our community including eligibility period, criteria overview, types of beneficiaries and seek their feedback to help us finalize the Phase 1 airdrop plan in line with Shardeum’s OCC principle.

While we may not be able to reward every contributor/participant, we aim to provide various other benefits to unrewarded node validators as part of Shardeum’s Early Contributor Program or ECP. The benefits may potentially include priority access to the airdrops of our consenting ecosystem partners, exchange-dependent IEOs, future reward multipliers, preference in future contests and campaigns. Don’t forget to read the blog and provide your feedback.

How do GUI and CLI features help me in operating a node?

With GUI, you can start running a node with a few clicks of your mouse. Shardeum is one of the first L1 networks to enable user-friendly GUI feature for node validators asides from CLI.

CLI is the only interface used by the vast majority of blockchain networks. It is typically enabled for more advanced users and developers who intend to work with nodes more deeply and technically.

Can I operate archive nodes on betanet?

During betanet the community can operate validator nodes. After mainnet, the community can also operate archiver nodes.

What would be the requirement and incentive to run an archive node?

Our rough estimate is: 32 core, 256GB RAM, 4TB SSD. Also, as mentioned in the whitepaper, archive nodes must stake a certain amount SHM coin to join the network as an archiver. Exact requirements and incentive for running an archiver will be determined closer to mainnet launch. So stay tuned to our official announcement regarding the same.

Shardeum has POQ + POS, and validators have to stake some amount of SHM. Suppose, delegators can choose one of these validators to delegate and lock their funds to contribute to the protocol security in return for staking rewards, would this capital be allowed to be used at other places to farm high yields for instance?

On the Shardeum network, node operation is open to everyone, including professional node service providers, whom you might choose for running your nodes. However, all validators, regardless of who operates them, are required to stake a certain amount of SHM as collateral. These validators are rewarded for their participation and can unstake their collateral once they complete their active validation cycle and are rotated out.

Also keep in mind that decentralization is maximized when many independent and anonymous validators contribute to the network. Shardeum encourages individuals to run their own validators and stake SHM. We’ve intentionally kept hardware and staking requirements accessible for average users, making it easier to participate in the consensus process. Our goal is to empower as many individuals as possible, fostering true decentralization and making Web3 universally accessible.

I understand that the standby nodes would become active when there is a traffic spike or when active nodes go offline. Will there be a penalty for going offline?

This decision will be part of the network protocols that nodes on the network will have to follow. We will update the community once we finalize staking, slashing and hardware requirement ahead of the mainnet launch. In the meantime, you can take a look at our whitepaper for a more general understanding of how Shardeum will operate post mainnet.

Does the network give any priorities for selecting validator nodes?

As a validator on the network, specific protocols must be adhered to, including staking a minimum amount of coins and meeting the minimum hardware requirements. Once these criteria are met, the network ensures fair and unbiased selection of nodes for consensus and validation, without prioritizing or favoring any particular node

What are the hardware requirements to run a node on Shardeum mainnet?

We will determine and announce the exact hardware and staking requirements when we approach the mainnet which is currently scheduled for Q2 of 2024. To get an approximate understanding of the requirements for running a node, you can refer to the details provided for our betanet, Sphinx (in the 2nd question of this FAQ section above).

How will the node reward policy look like on Shardeum?

Read our whitepaper for more detailed and interesting information on this.