What are Smart Contracts in Blockchain, and How Do They Work?

What are Smart Contracts in Blockchain, and How Do They Work?

Smart contracts are simply programs stored on a blockchain that run when predetermined conditions are met. Know more about smart contracts and how it...

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Smart contracts have emerged as a revolutionary technology, transforming the way we conduct business and interact with digital assets. Powered by blockchain technology, smart contracts offer a decentralized and transparent approach to executing agreements. This blog post will dive into smart contracts, exploring their definition, functionality, benefits, limitations, and various applications. 

Let’s start at the beasics: what are smart contracts?

What are Smart Contracts?

At its core, a smart contract is a self-executing digital agreement programmed to perform specific actions when predetermined conditions are met automatically. These contracts are built on blockchain technology, ensuring security, transparency, and immutability. 

How Do Smart Contracts Work?

Smart contracts operate on an “if-then” logic, where the agreement’s terms and conditions are converted into lines of code. These lines are stored on a blockchain network, enabling the contract to execute autonomously. When the predetermined conditions are met, such as the fulfillment of obligations on a specific date, the smart contract triggers the associated actions, which can range from transferring funds to updating records. The decentralized nature of blockchain ensures that all participants have access to the contract’s code and can verify its execution.

Benefits of Smart Contracts

Benefits of Smart Contracts
Source – (HiTecher/Smart Contract)

Now that we know ‘what are smart contracts?’ and ‘how do smart contracts work?’, let’s take a look at their advantages. Smart contracts bring forth many benefits across various domains. Let’s explore some of the key benefits:

Speed, Efficiency, and Accuracy 

Smart contracts automate processes, eliminating the need for manual intervention. This automation leads to faster execution, reducing processing time and minimizing human errors. By removing intermediaries, smart contracts streamline workflows, resulting in increased efficiency.

Trust and Transparency  

The transparency of blockchain technology ensures that all parties involved have access to the contract’s terms, conditions, and execution history. This transparency fosters trust among participants, as they can independently verify the actions performed by the smart contract.


Traditional contracts often involve significant costs associated with intermediaries, paperwork, and legal processes. Smart contracts, on the other hand, reduce these expenses by automating the entire process, resulting in cost savings for all parties involved.


Smart contracts leverage the robust security of blockchain technology. The decentralized nature of blockchain ensures that data is stored across multiple nodes, making it extremely difficult for malicious interference to alter or tamper with the contract’s code or execution.

History of Smart Contracts

The idea of smart contracts has existed since the early 1990s when computer scientist Nick Szabo introduced the notion. However, the advent of blockchain technology, with Bitcoin’s launch in 2009, opened the doors for the practical implementation of smart contracts. 

That being said, Ethereum was the first blockchain platform to introduce the usage of smart contracts. Since then, many other new age blockchains have acknowledged the numerous benefits of smart contracts and given them a wide variety of use cases. 

Use Cases of Smart Contracts

Now, speaking of use cases of smart contracts, they find applications in various industries, revolutionizing traditional processes and enabling new possibilities. Here are a couple of notable examples:

Safeguarding the Efficacy of Medications

In the pharmaceutical industry, ensuring the safety and authenticity of medications is of utmost importance. Smart contracts can be utilized to track and verify the entire supply chain journey of medications, from manufacturing to distribution. By automating the verification process, smart contracts provide a robust mechanism for detecting counterfeit drugs and ensuring that only genuine and efficacious medications reach patients. 

This application safeguards public health and protects pharmaceutical companies from reputational risks and financial losses.

Increasing Trust in Retailer-Supplier Relationships 

Retailer-supplier relationships often involve complex agreements and transactions. Smart contracts can revolutionize this dynamic by automating payment processes and ensuring transparency and fairness for both parties. For instance, in a retail scenario, a smart contract can be set up to release funds to the supplier only upon successful delivery of goods and satisfactory quality checks. This automated and predefined payment mechanism eliminates the need for manual reconciliation, reduces disputes, and enhances trust between retailers and suppliers. It also enables more efficient inventory management and smoother supply chain operations.

Enhancing Efficiency in Insurance Claims

The insurance industry can greatly benefit from implementing smart contracts. In traditional insurance claims processes, delays, paperwork, and disputes often lead to inefficiencies. Smart contracts can rationalize this process by automating claim settlements based on predefined conditions. For example, in a travel insurance claim, the smart contract can automatically trigger the reimbursement process if a flight is delayed by more than a specified time, eliminating the need for manual claims assessment and approval. This speeds up the claim settlement process, reduces administrative costs, and improves customer satisfaction.

Revolutionizing Supply Chain Management 

Supply chains involve numerous stakeholders, complex agreements, and vast amounts of data. Smart contracts can revolutionize supply chain management by providing end-to-end transparency, automating processes, and ensuring compliance. Using blockchain technology, smart contracts enable real-time tracking and verification of goods, streamline payment processes, and enhance trust between suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and retailers. This increased efficiency and transparency help reduce fraud, improve inventory management, optimize logistics, and ultimately lower costs across the supply chain.

These are just a few examples of smart contracts transforming various industries. The potential applications are vast, and as the technology is evolving, we can expect to see even more innovative use cases that will reshape how we conduct business and interact with digital assets.

Limitations of Smart Contracts 

While smart contracts offer numerous benefits, it is essential to acknowledge their limitations. Some of these limitations include:


Developing smart contracts requires a deep understanding of programming languages and blockchain platforms. The complexity involved may hinder widespread adoption and limit accessibility.


Smart contracts cannot be modified or revoked easily once deployed on the blockchain. While this immutability ensures security, it also means that any errors or bugs in the contract’s code may have severe consequences.


Smart contracts have emerged as a transformative technology that brings efficiency, security, and transparency to the world of agreements and transactions. By leveraging blockchain technology and automation, smart contracts eliminate the need for intermediaries, streamline processes, and ensure the execution of predefined conditions with precision. While smart contracts have complexities and limitations, their benefits far outweigh the challenges.

From industries like finance and supply chain management to healthcare and real estate, smart contracts can revolutionize various sectors by increasing efficiency, reducing costs, and fostering trust among participants. As we continue to explore and harness the power of smart contracts, we can unlock a future where digital agreements are seamlessly executed and trust is strengthened in the digital realm.

We hope this post has provided satisfactory answers to your questions of ‘what are smart contracts?’ and ‘how do smart contracts work?’.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is an Example of a Smart Contract? 

One example of a smart contract is its use in an escrow service. In a real estate transaction, the smart contract holds the buyer’s funds until the predetermined conditions, such as property inspection or title transfer, are met. Once the conditions are satisfied, the smart contract automatically releases the funds to the seller.

2. Which Blockchain has Smart Contracts? 

Ethereum is the most well-known blockchain platform that supports smart contracts. Its robust infrastructure and programming language, Solidity, has made it a popular choice for developers worldwide.

3. What are the 3 Characteristics of Smart Contracts? 

Three characteristics of smart contracts are automation, immutability, and transparency. They automate contract execution, ensuring predetermined conditions trigger specific actions. Smart contracts are immutable and cannot be modified once deployed on the blockchain. Lastly, they offer transparency by making the contract’s code and execution history accessible to all participants.

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