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16 Key Web3 Programming Languages for 2023 – A Complete Checklist

16 Key Web3 Programming Languages for 2023 – A Complete Checklist

Web3 is set to bring forth radical changes in the world of Tech. Read this blog to know about the web3 programming...

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As the digital landscape continues to evolve, the demand for decentralized applications (DApps) and blockchain-based solutions is growing rapidly. With the advent of web3, developers can now create secure, transparent, and distributed applications using a wide range of programming languages specifically designed for this purpose.

Choosing the best programming languages for Web3 can be difficult, particularly for individuals who are new to developing web3 applications. However, with the right language, developers can unlock the full potential of web3, creating powerful and innovative applications that can transform industries and improve lives.

In this list, we will explore some of the top web3 programming languages and provide insights into their strengths and weaknesses, so you can decide which language best suits your needs. Whether you’re a seasoned developer or a novice, this guide will help you get started in the exciting and ever-changing world of web3 programming languages.

What is a Web3 Programming Language?

Web3 programming languages are specific programming languages designed to build decentralized applications (DApps) that interact with the blockchain. Web3 refers to the internet’s third generation, where people have more say over their data and can transact with each other without intermediaries.

The best programming languages for web3 allow developers to create decentralized applications that run on a distributed network of computers rather than on a centralized server. This ensures the application is secure, transparent, and immutable, making it ideal for use cases such as finance, supply chain management, and voting systems.

Some of the best programming languages for web3 include Solidity, JavaScript, Rust, and Go. Each language has strengths and weaknesses, and developers can choose the language that best suits their needs and preferences.

Web3 programming languages have revolutionized how we build and interact with applications on the internet. As blockchain technology continues to gain in popularity, We may anticipate much more innovation in the web3 programming space, paving the way for a more decentralized and democratized digital world.

Which Programming Language is Used in Web3 the Most? 

Since there’s a wide array of web3 programming languages out there, it’s difficult to pick one that is used the most. One of the web3 programming languages used extensively by developers would be Solidity, however.

Solidity is an object-oriented programming language specifically designed for Ethereum smart contract development. It offers a range of features and functionalities that make it easier for developers to write secure and efficient smart contracts that can be executed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine.

Other best programming languages for web3 include Rust, JavaScript, and Python. Rust, for example, is known for its strong focus on security, making it a great choice for creating secure decentralized applications. 

If you are looking for the best programming languages for web3, you will have to pick them yourself depending on the specific needs and requirements of your web3 project. That is why it is critical to have an understanding of a variety of web3 programming languages, so you can select the one that suits you best.

👀Get familiar with the terms related to web 3.0 with Features of Web 3.0

List of Web3 Programming Languages

Here are some of the most popular and best programming languages for web3:

1. Solidity
2. Vyper
3. Go (Golang)
4. Huff Language 
5. Rust
6. Move
7. Cairo
8. Haskell 
9. C++
10. Java
11. HTML
12. Python
13. Ruby
14. JavaScript
15. Structured Query Language
16. Rholang

Most Popular Programming Languages for Web3 

1. Solidity

Solidity is a web3 programming language designed to develop smart contracts and decentralized applications on the Ethereum blockchain, as mentioned above.

Source / Solidity

Solidity is an object-oriented and Turing-complete web3 programming language, and it is arguably the most popular pick among developers for Ethereum smart contracts. However, contrary to popular belief, Solidity can also be used for smart contract development on other blockchains, as long as they are EVM-compatible

Solidity carries influences from well-known, older programming languages like C++, JavaScript and Python.

2. Vyper

As the Web3 ecosystem continues to grow, developers are looking for efficient and secure ways to write smart contracts and decentralized applications. Vyper, which was developed by the Ethereum Foundation, is designed to address some of the shortcomings of Solidity.

Source  /  Vyper

Vyper emphasizes security and simplicity, making it easier for developers to write secure code. It also has a reduced feature set compared to Solidity, which helps eliminate potential security vulnerabilities. 

If you’re looking for a powerful web3 programming language, Vyper is definitely worth considering. Its focus on security and simplicity make it an excellent choice for developing smart contracts and decentralized applications on blockchain networks.

3. Go (Golang)

Go is a statically typed language known for its simplicity, speed, and concurrency. It was developed by Google in 2007 and has since become a popular choice as a web3 programming language. Go’s simplicity makes it easy to learn, while its agility and concurrency make it a powerful tool for building scalable web applications.

Go (Golang)
Source / Go (Golang)

Error handling is one of the biggest issues with Go. The quest for solutions is ongoing, and ideas for handling errors have emerged. Primary features of Go include memory security, garbage collection, CSP-style concurrency, and structural typing. Go is used by big-shot companies like Netflix, Uber, and American Express to develop outstandingly scalable applications.

Overall, Go’s simplicity, speed, and strong support for concurrency make it an excellent choice for web3 programming, and it is likely to continue to be a popular choice among developers in the years to come.

4. Huff Language 

Huff is one of the best programming languages for web3 that allows developers to easily create smart contracts and decentralized applications. It features a simple syntax that is easy to learn, making it a great choice for developers of all skill levels. The language also strongly emphasizes security, ensuring that your code is safe and secure from potential attacks.

Huff Language

Source / Huff programming language

One of the key benefits of using Huff for web3 programming is its interoperability with a number of blockchain platforms. This means that developers can build decentralized applications that interact with multiple blockchain networks, making it easier to create complex systems that can leverage the benefits of different blockchains.

Overall, Huff is an excellent choice for developers looking to build decentralized applications for web3. Its simplicity, security, and interoperability make it one of the best web3 programming languages for web3 development.

5. Rust 

Rust is a statically typed web3 programming language with three objectives: safety, speed, and concurrency. It achieves these goals without a garbage collector, making it a useful language for various use cases where other languages fall short: embedding in other languages, programs with specific space and time requirements, and writing low-level code, such as device drivers and operating systems.

Source / Rust programming language

Rust brings higher memory efficiency compared to many other web3 programming languages. Rust can also help with the extermination of various bug classes during compliance. Therefore, Rust is good for any web3 applications that ask for high performance.

Rust further allows flexible integration with other programming languages, efficient problem-solving, and lowered entry barriers for newcomers. Rust is the go-to language for most developers building on the Solana blockchain.

6. Move 

Web3 programming languages are gaining popularity as more developers strive to build decentralized apps on the blockchain. Among the most popular programming languages for web3, Move stands out as a unique language designed specifically for the Libra blockchain.

The Move is a safe and secure language that enables developers to write smart contracts for the Libra blockchain. It is a highly functional web3 programming language that uses a novel approach to handling resources, making it ideal for developing decentralized applications that require robust security and reliability.

One of the key benefits of using Move is its ability to ensure the safety and security of smart contracts, which is essential in blockchain technology. It achieves this through static and dynamic analysis, which helps prevent common vulnerabilities such as reentrancy attacks and integer overflow.

7. Cairo

Cairo is another of the best programming languages for web3 development, gaining popularity due to its high-performance capabilities and ease of use.

Here are some of the benefits of Cairo:

  • It is a proven language created specifically for smart contracts.
  • It is unrestricted by the EVM.
  • Instead of being inherited, its functions are imported.
  • It includes full low-level access to underlying primitives.
Source / Cairo

Cairo was developed by StarkWare, a layer 2 scaling solution built for Ethereum that makes use of zero-knowledge rollups. StarkWare powers StarkEx with Cairo, which is the toolbox of scalability solutions built for Ethereum DApps including, dYdX, Sorare, and Immutable. 

Cairo is also the native language for smart contract development on StarkNet, which is a decentralized and permissionless ZK-rollup based on Ethereum.  

8. Haskell

A group of researchers created Haskell in the late 1980s, a purely functional web3 programming language. In 1990, it was eventually published. It is named after the American mathematician Haskell Brooks Curry.

Source / Haskell 

Haskell comes with type interference, and it creates executables with great performance. The web3 programming language has been specifically built to handle large-scale industrial production requirements. 

9. C++

C++ is one of the oldest and best programming languages for web3. The languages’ capabilities, such as move semantics, memory control, multi-threading capabilities, and other advanced features such as function overloading and runtime polymorphism, make it more than suitable for developing web apps, web services, cloud programs, web3 solutions, and computer games.

Source / C++

C++ is undoubtedly one of the best programming languages for Web3 development, especially considering how it was used to write the very first Bitcoin client implementation.

10. Java

Java is a ubiquitous programming language widely used to generate web-based commercial solutions. Open-source libraries and the OOP approach provide extensive support for the programming language, making it an excellent candidate for smart contracts and decentralized apps. The Java web3 programming language further offers enhanced safety, cost-effectiveness, and a developer-friendly nature that puts it ahead of the competition.

Java’s security features are also particularly relevant in web3 development, where security is critical. Its ability to run in a secure sandbox environment and its support for cryptography makes it well-suited for building blockchain-based applications. Additionally, Java has a vast community of developers, so developers can quickly get help and find resources when encountering problems.

11. HTML

HTML, or Hypertext Markup Language, is another of the oldest programming languages used in web development. Although it’s not technically a programming language, it’s essential to building websites and web3 applications. With the rise of the decentralized web, HTML has become an important tool for developers who want to create engaging and interactive user interfaces for their web3 applications.

HTML allows developers to structure and organize web pages by defining headings, paragraphs, images, and links. It also enables developers to create forms, tables, and other interactive elements that will allow users to efficiently interact with web3 applications.

Source / HTML

One of the benefits of using HTML for web3 development is its simplicity and ease of use. Even beginners can learn the basics of HTML relatively quickly, making it a great language for those just starting out in web3 programming.

Overall, HTML is essential for web3 developers who want to create engaging and interactive user interfaces for their decentralized applications.

12. Python

Python is one of the best programming languages for web3 development, despite being one of the oldest. Python is an object-oriented web3 programming language, which makes it simple to handle performance overheads.

Source / Python

Python’s powerful capabilities, particularly in data science, machine learning, statistics, cyber security, and blockchain, make it an excellent choice for creating web3 applications. Developers may readily address challenges in web3 development thanks to open-source frameworks, plugins, and other internet resources.

Additionally, Python has powerful libraries and tools, like Pandas, Numpy, and Scikit-learn, which can be used to analyze blockchain data and create predictive models.

Python’s versatility, ease of use, and robust ecosystem make it one of the best programming languages for web3 development. 

13. Ruby

Ruby is a powerful and dynamic programming language that has become one of the best programming languages for web3 development in recent years. The open-source nature of the programming language, together with the inclusion of APIs and plugins, allows web3 developers to easily and successfully prototype their vision.

Source / Ruby

Ruby has a strong developer community actively contributing to developing tools and libraries that can be used for web3 programming. This has led to the creation of frameworks and libraries like Truffle and Web3.js, simplifying the process of building decentralized applications and interacting with blockchain networks.

14. JavaScript

JavaScript is a web3 programming language widely used by developers to create brilliant, innovative, and scalable web3 commercial solutions. With its ability to handle asynchronous operations and manipulate the Document Object Model (DOM), JavaScript allows developers to design interactive and dynamic user interfaces essential for web3 applications.

JavaScript also has a rich ecosystem of libraries and frameworks that can be used to streamline the development process. For example, libraries like Web3.js and ethers.js provide developers with easy-to-use APIs for interacting with blockchain networks. At the same time, frameworks like React and Angular enable developers to build scalable and maintainable web3 applications.

15. Structured Query Language

SQL, or Structured Query Language, is a popular computer language used to manage and manipulate relational databases. While not typically considered a primary language for web3 programming, SQL can still be useful in managing data within decentralized applications.

SQL databases such as MySQL, SQL Server, PostgreSQL, and Oracle make network communication simple and efficient. This web3 programming language may be used by startups and organizations worldwide to create safe and successful business solutions. SQL an be useful in managing data within decentralized applications. For example, it can query and retrieve information from a blockchain database or manage user accounts and transactions. 

16. Rholang

Rholang is one of the best programming languages for web3 development due to its unique features. It is based on the π-calculus, a mathematical theory of concurrent processes, which makes it well-suited for blockchain systems where transactions occur simultaneously.

Source / Rholang 

Rholang is one of the fastest-growing web3 programming languages. The object-oriented approach of the programming language is quite helpful in solving many issues in web3 development. Rather than focusing on the individual component, the programming language evaluates the entire program as a series of functions and solves them sequentially. 


In conclusion, web3 programming languages have become integral to the blockchain and decentralized applications ecosystem. With the growing popularity of decentralized finance (DeFi), non-fungible tokens (NFTs), and other innovative blockchain use cases, the demand for developers skilled in web3 programming languages has increased significantly. 

Some of the best programming languages for web3 include Solidity, JavaScript, Rust, and Python. Solidity remains one of the most popular choices for developing smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, while JavaScript and Rust are gaining momentum as alternatives for building decentralized applications on other blockchain networks.

As the web3 ecosystem evolves, developers must stay updated with the latest programming languages and tools to remain relevant in this exciting field. Ultimately, web3 programming languages will be crucial in shaping the future of decentralized applications and blockchain technology.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. Is Python good for Web3 Development? 

Python ranks among the best programming languages for web3 development. Its simple syntax and extensive libraries make it popular among developers building decentralized applications, smart contracts, and other blockchain-based solutions. Python’s versatility extends to web3 development, commonly used for artificial intelligence, machine learning, and data analysis. Python’s popularity also means a large community of developers and a wealth of resources are available, making it easy to get started with web3 development. Python is a great choice for web3 development, particularly for those who want to build data-driven and AI-powered solutions.

2. Who is a Web3 Programmer?

A web3 programmer develops decentralized applications and protocols that utilize blockchain technology and other web3 technologies, and they make use of web3 programming languages to do so. 

To become a web3 programmer, one must be proficient in programming languages such as Solidity, Rust, JavaScript, and Python, which are essential for building smart contracts and DApps (decentralized applications).

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